Not All Heroes Wear Capes

On Friday 15 October, the SERV S&L was presented with The Queen’s Award for Voluntary Service by the Lord Lieutenant of Surrey. Geoff Streeter was one of 20 volunteer SERV S&L members who attended.

What Is SERV S&L?

SERV S&L (Service by Emergency Rider Volunteers for Surrey and London) are a charity organisation, made up entirely of volunteers, comprising motorbike riders, car drivers, controllers, and fundraisers. They transport blood products, urgent samples, medical supplies, and donated breast milk to hospitals and milk banks across Surrey & London, as well as carrying out a daily delivery of blood to the Air Ambulance service that covers Kent, Surrey, and Sussex. They support the regular delivery rounds that the NHSBT (National Health Service Blood and Transport) have in place; unlike the NHSBT, SERV S&L also operate throughout the night. All of this is provided free of charge to the NHS, releasing more money for patient care.

What Is The Queen’s Award for Voluntary Service?

QAVS (The Queen’s Award for Voluntary Service) celebrates the outstanding work of local volunteer groups across the UK. Created in 2002 for Queen Elizabeth II’s Golden Jubilee, QAVS awards shine a light on the fantastic work of voluntary groups. QAVS awards are the highest awards given to local voluntary groups in the U.K. (they are the equivalent of a personal MBE) and they are awarded for life.

Geoff’s Involvement with SERV S&L

A Personal Recollection

At the end of 1980, Paul McCann had a relation who could not get an urgent sample transported to the testing lab until the next morning. He was frustrated by this and organised a meeting to see what could be done, the result of which was that a group of advanced motor cycle trainers from a (now defunct) group called Star Rider decided to try to run a delivery service for blood/samples at night. I was not at that meeting but I heard about it from a fellow member of the Laverda Owners group; I made it to the second meeting (on 8 December 1980) and have been involved ever since. We obtained a room with a couple of bunks in a wooden building owned by MEFAS (Malden Emergency First Aid Society) and a telephone line, and started operating in early 1981.

The main distribution point for blood is located in Tooting and serves London, Kent, Surrey and Sussex (we have partner organisations in Kent, Sussex and Wessex). We do a main nightly run with typically 6 to 10 boxes down to an arranged change point for Kent and Sussex. We also partner with similar organisations across the U.K., and have occasional relay runs, for example, from Edinburgh to central London (I think that’s the longest that we’ve been involved in). More common are runs from Bristol. We typically shift 20 boxes a night and samples in the other direction and have about 8 riders/drivers on shift every night.

Financially, we get support from some Masonic Lodges and business groups. They prefer to buy bikes for us, and Citroen have given us a car (DS3) on permanent loan. We are in the process of acquiring/refurbishing a scout facility in Sutton to provide a base for the bikes/cars/van as well as for volunteers who live on the periphery of the area. We also raise funds by box waving outside supermarkets, garden centres, Brooklands, Waterloo Station, etc.

I started with the group as a biker, and used my Laverda 750, Laverda 1200 and Honda 650 Turbo to deliver blood and samples from 1981 until 1990, when I switched to car deliveries (which I continued to do until last year). I also acted as Treasurer from 2006 until 2010. I have been one of the controllers right from the start [Ed.: Controllers orchestrate the logistics of a shift; hospitals and partner groups place their orders and riders and drivers are dispatched as required – accurate scheduling and data logging are required to ensure efficient co-ordination and communication so that each run can be completed reliably], a role that has changed a lot over the last 40 years. In the early days controllers needed to be physically present with the one rider and the telephone. Then we moved to using pagers (but still needed to be present in the hut/sports centre) before everything changed with the advent of mobile phones – I now control from home. The expectation is that volunteers do one night a fortnight, but a shortage of volunteers relative to growing demand means that for a few years now I have been doing at least one shift a week.

Final Word

Congratulations Geoff, 40 years of volunteering for such a worthy cause is a fantastic achievement. All of us at Dyalog Ltd are really proud of your contribution.

To find out more about the amazing service provided by SERV S&L, including how to make a donation, visit

Essays on APL Since 1978

In June, Mikhail Barash and Anya Helene Bagge published a collection of essays written by the students of the seminar course INF328B on History of Programming Languages that was given at the University of Bergen (Norway) in the Spring term 2021. As an author, I wish to start by thanking Mikhail and Anya and the students for this initiative! It is inspiring to those of us who have been in this game for a while to see young computer scientists who are interested in language design studying history – it definitely makes us feel that the effort put in to writing the paper was worthwhile!

Each essay summarised one paper from the HOPL IV conference (part of ACM SIGPLAN’s PLDI 2021). Two students wrote essays on the paper “APL Since 1978”, by Roger Hui and myself. At the end of each essay, students were encouraged to pose questions to the authors of the HOPL IV papers, and this blog post has essentially been written in response to those questions.

Karl Henrik Elg Barlinn asks:
“I wish to know if there are plans to try and popularize APL within the wider community of programming languages. I ask this because I see how it can be very useful for the mathematical community to write papers and be able to execute the notation.”

The APL community has always seen “evangelism” as an important activity, and that remains true to this day. It is a challenging task because the most successful APL users are neither software engineers nor mainstream mathematicians, but various types of domain experts who are able to apply mathematics and learned enough about programming to write high value applications with a lot of domain-specific content. Typical users have been actuaries and financial experts, operations researchers and planners.

Successful APL users are more likely to write papers at an Actuarial or Chemical Engineering conference, and typically lack the vocabulary and the insight into mainstream computer science to present APL to the “community of programming languages”. They also typically work in highly competitive industries and have little time or inclination (or permission) to publish their work.

The situation is improving: the growing interest in functional programming, and the general recognition by the software engineering community that there is value in combining different paradigms (as opposed to the bad old days when everyone thought that the world would soon standardise on C++ or Java), makes it much easier to interest the new generation in APL.

A new generation of APL users is emerging, who have more insight into Computer Science and are more able to bridge the gap. Examples of recent work include:

Dyalog Ltd recently introduced an event aimed at new users; recordings from the first of these meetings can be found at

In addition to the marketing efforts, Dyalog is working hard to add tooling that will open APL interpreters up to mainstream “devops” workflows, based on text-based source files. Historically, most big APL shops developed their own home-grown management systems (many of them pre-dating tools like SVN or Git by decades), and there has not been a lot of tooling shared by the community.

“Given unlimited influence, where do you wish to see APL be used? If your answer is everywhere, does that mean APL is fit to do everything? On the other hand if your answer is not everywhere, where is not fit to be used and why?”

Given unlimited influence, I would push APL as a tool for education. I think it could be a useful tool for teaching mathematics – and how to use it to solve problems on a computer – starting with children. The simplicity of APL’s syntax means that it is also a good tool for teaching people of all ages and at all levels of education to manipulate data without just feeding it to ready-made packages. Teaching fundamental algorithms in computer science classes is also a good place to use APL, although the CS establishment will probably question that since APL tries to do most things without loops or type declarations, and sort of “skips over” the lowest level of algorithms.

APL is a useful tool for modelling, prototyping and designing solutions to any kind of problem. Obviously, many domains already have tools specifically designed for common types of problems. For example, Mathematica and MatLab have built-in solutions for many different classes of mathematical or engineering problems, TensorFlow for artificial neural networks, and so on. However, when the time comes to perform a major revision or extension, or there are no pre-built solutions, APL will be a good choice for prototyping.

Although APL is perhaps most valuable during analysis and design, the “executable design” is often used in production because APL interpreters are efficient on the relatively dense data structures that results from array orientation and because the ability of domain experts to write code (and tests) eliminates many sources of errors and poor performance due to unnecessary abstractions.

APL is not always an appropriate choice for the final production system. For example, I would not use APL to implement a real-time system, at least not using existing APL interpreters, which will freeze up to do compactions every now and again. For mission-critical systems, the additional safety provided by strong typing or other mechanisms for verifying correctness, and using teams trained to focus on reliability rather than analytics, may have benefits. If the core algorithms are not array-oriented and require a lot of looping or recursion, an interpreter may not be the right solution, and APL compilers are not yet mature technologies.

Even when the final production system is rewritten in another language, the prototype can be useful as a verification system, especially because the implementation is likely to be radically different, and can therefore almost act as a proof of correctness.

For an example of how APL can add significant value even when it is not used in the final implementation, see Martin Janiczek’s presentation at APLSeeds21, on “How an APL Prototype Helped Designing a Service”:

“Q: Do you think APL with its glyphs is more fit to be taught in school than J, as special equipment is no longer an issue with UTF being widely adopted?”

There are still some problems related to APL symbols, such as many applications rendering the symbol incorrectly as a followed by a slightly offset / unless a supporting font is used. I suspect that it may be a while before we have handwriting recognition for APL symbols, or support for APL in writing systems for the visually impaired, and so on. On the other hand, one of the benefits of APL (which also holds true for J) is that it is independent of any particular human language, without needing to be translated from English.

Roger Hui commented in the HOPL IV Slack channel: “I am guessing that if the ecosystem for Unicode was more developed at the time (1990) Iverson would have kept the APL glyphs.”

Sondre Nilsen comments:
“If I would have some feedback it’d be to include an “array programming languages for dummies” appendix that could be used to look up foreign concepts, words and phrases that unfamiliar aspiring APL developers may not know.”

Hopefully the APL Wiki ( will be a useful resource, along with the (APLCart and the evolving digital version of Mastering Dyalog APL. Please take a look at let us know if you feel more is required!

Roger and Morten’s HOPL IV paper “APL Since 1978”:

Welcome Karta Kooner

Karta joined Dyalog in April, and is yet to meet anybody in person although he’s been told that this is not necessarily a bad thing! After completing his doctoral degree in theoretical physics, Karta stumbled upon Dyalog and APL entirely by happenstance. Being often captivated by things that look unfamiliar to him, and having an interest in most things, it was a code golf question that was answered in a strange, yet mathematical-looking language that took him to the profile of the poster, who happened to mention they were employed by Dyalog and currently hiring. He sent an email enquiring about the opportunity and, several remote interviews later, was happy to be hired as a C/C++ developer working on the interpreter.

Karta is one of the few members of the team that knew no APL whatsoever before joining and has been very impressed by Dyalog and APL thus far; he is very much looking forward to seeing how far the language can be taken, with an eye to further developing and potentially encouraging its use in academia and other technical fields of study.

In his spare time, Karta enjoys expanding his knowledge of both scientific and technical pursuits, and tinkering around with software and hardware systems, amongst his eclectic interests. When not found reading papers or learning an unfamiliar branch of mathematics, he will be caught thinking of a new engineering project to occupy his time, or stumbling through learning a new language, or maybe just delighting in the latest vixra paper.

Thank You Ian Sharp

On July 16th, one of the most influential founders of what we today refer to as the “array language community” died peacefully, a few months after being diagnosed with lung cancer (link: Toronto Globe and Mail).

Ian Patrick Sharp

In 1964, Ian Patrick Sharp formed I.P.Sharp Associates (IPSA), together with six colleagues who were made redundant when Ferranti-Packard closed its computer division in Toronto, Canada. As Ian explains in a wonderful interview that was recorded in 1984 (link: Snake Island website), he was approached by people who wanted to recruit the whole team. Instead, he decided to form a company, since the team obviously had significant value.

The company was involved in the first APL implementation at IBM (APL\360). Subsequently, IBM allowed them to modify and enhance the system, and built a timesharing service that became known as SHARP APL. Roger Moore was a co-founder of IPSA and, in addition to being responsible for the supervisor that made SHARP APL a superior timesharing system, Roger was the chief architect of IPSANET, one of the worlds first packet switched networks.

In the late 1970s the combination of APL and IPSANET was revolutionary, and IPSA quickly attracted business from global corporate clients who used SHARP APL for e-mail, reporting and analytics, and a rapidly-growing collection of financial timeseries data – all completely new technologies at the time. In particular, the transmission of data over telephone lines changed the world. Ian had many absurd encounters with telecom monopolies who tried to protect old business models or profit from the new technology (link:

A Stylised Map of the I.P.Sharp Associates APL Time-Sharing Network

Ian’s management style perfectly matched – and drove – the revolutionary technologies. As Ian explains so eloquently and humorously in the interview, IPSA recruited talented people without necessarily having specific tasks in mind. Ian set the tone and direction and then let people get on with it, moving around in the background to get a sense of how things were going and making adjustments without ever making a fuss. IPSA was a fantastic place to work and attracted a wonderfully diverse (in the most modern sense of the word) collection of smart people who developed revolutionary tools, helped a lot of customers, had a lot of fun, and made money.

Ultimately, IPSA was creative, problem-oriented and customer-driven to the extent that it failed to respond to fundamental changes in the market in time. At the end of the 1980s the timesharing revenues suddenly faded, and the company was acquired by Reuters for its timeseries databases and more or less disappeared overnight. However, IPSA had acted as a fantastic breeding ground for technology and talent for a quarter century, and there are hundreds of people who fondly and gratefully remember Ian for the way that he allowed them all to grow.

I don’t think it is a coincidence that so many of the active array language organisations have key players who were once IPSA employees (some of them appearing in more than one place thanks to relationships forged a very long time ago 😊).

  • Jsoftware: Roger Hui, Eric Iverson, Chris Burke, Ken Iverson
  • Kx: Arthur Whitney, Simon Garland, Stephen Taylor, Chris Burke
  • Dyalog: Gitte Christensen, Morten Kromberg, Roger Hui, Brian Becker, Dan Baronet
  • Snake Island Research: Robert Bernecky

As always, Roger has collected anecdotes about IPSA, Ian and other people who worked there, which you can find on

My Own IPSA Story

In 1978, my dad was moving out of an apartment in Oslo. At the same time, XEROX insisted that IPSA open an office in Oslo to support their international business, and several Canadians arrived there. I helped move some furniture and, sensing a keen interest and real excitement in programming, the IPSA Oslo team offered me a free account to play with APL timesharing, if I was interested. I effectively became a piece of furniture in the IPSA office after school, and had keys to the office so I could come and go as I pleased. After a year or so, they started throwing me bits of real work to do and paying me for my time. I think I was 17 at the time.

In addition to working as an APL consultant and tool builder, one of the things I did in my spare time was to write a tool for myself that would compare the entire contents of the e-mail directory with its state at the end of the previous week. Since IPSA was 100% managed by e-mail groups, this allowed me to know instantly when a new office was opened, a significant new project was started, and, of course, when new employees joined the company. By using this technique of harvesting e-mail addresses and sending unsolicited e-mail when an interesting project or person joined, I found my future partner both at home and the office – Gitte, the current CEO of Dyalog Ltd – only about 500km away in the IPSA Copenhagen branch.

I spent about a decade at IPSA and, after its sudden disappearance, Gitte and I have been trying to recreate the IPSA atmosphere in every team that we have been a member of. In a very real sense, I owe not only my career but almost everything of value about my life to Ian Sharp and the warm and welcoming company that he created.

Thank You, Ian!

Welcome Rodrigo Girão Serrão

The story of how Rodrigo got his first internship at Dyalog is, in his opinion, a textbook example of serendipity. As 2020 started, Rodrigo began actively participating in an online code golf community, where people try to solve programming challenges in as few bytes of code as possible. Whilst his golfing skills were possibly lacking, the challenges he posted were usually well accepted. Posting many challenges meant Rodrigo got exposed to answers in all sorts of programming languages, from C, Java, Python and JavaScript, to Jelly, 05AB1E, Husk…and APL. Because of the context and the aspect of it, Rodrigo first thought APL was one of those “esolangs” and not a serious programming language.

Rodrigo’s fascination with APL led him to start frequenting The APL Orchard chatroom, where a small number of brilliant people convened to discuss all things APL. Here he met Adám Brudzewsky, who was keen on teaching APL to newcomers, and so began Rodrigo’s journey to learn APL.

His interest in APL kept growing, and he found it to be a simple and expressive language that also incorporated his affinity with mathematics. One day, while lurking in The APL Orchard, Adám asked Rodrigo if he would be interested in taking an intern position at Dyalog…a few emails later it was established that Rodrigo would work as a part-time intern at Dyalog during the Summer of 2020. This enabled Dyalog to make the most of Rodrigo’s skills in teaching and technical writing, and meant Rodrigo could indulge his passion for sharing knowledge about mathematics and programming while still finishing his MSc in Applied Mathematics. After his internship, Rodrigo took some time to complete his MSc thesis before returning to Dyalog to finish what he had started and hopefully to take part in many other interesting projects. When he is not working for Dyalog, Rodrigo may be found leading a Portuguese APL meetup, writing a blog post for his website (, or maybe leading a workshop or course. Other than working, Rodrigo likes to spend time with his loved ones, read fantasy books, eat chocolate, and watch silly comedy movies.

Welcome Shuhao Yang


Shuhao joined Dyalog straight after he completed his Master’s degree in quantum computing, which happened to be during the second COVID-related lockdown in the UK. This has given him a quite unusual experience of starting a career as he has yet to meet a single member of the Dyalog team face to face! Shuhao obtained his Bachelor’s degree in mathematics – although he was interested in computer science, he studied mathematics as a way of looking for the root of CS and computing. He has broad interests across different software including Matlab, Python and LaTeX and has developed a solid knowledge on C++.

Shuhao enjoys the romantic theories in computer science and always wanted to work in one of the summit areas of CS – compilers, graphics and operating systems. He’s very happy that he now has the opportunity to work on the Dyalog APL interpreter.